Dunstanburgh Castle, north-east coast of Northumberland is an 1800s painting by the English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolorist J. M. W. Turner. This work is located in the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne, Australia.
The History of Dunstanburgh Castle
Construction of Dunstanburgh Castle began in the early 14th century, commissioned by Thomas, the 2nd Earl of Lancaster. The site chosen for the castle was strategically significant, as it afforded control over both land and sea routes in the region, providing a commanding presence in the defense of England’s northern border. The castle’s name is derived from “Dunstanburgh,” signifying its connection to the nearby village of Dunstan.
The castle’s architecture embodies the stark grandeur of medieval military fortifications. It comprises an inner ward encircled by curtain walls, fortified towers, and gatehouses. The imposing gatehouse, flanked by two massive towers, served as both a defensive entryway and a symbol of the castle’s power. The castle was designed with functionality and defense in mind, with features such as arrow slits and drawbridges to deter potential attackers.
One of the most remarkable chapters in Dunstanburgh Castle’s history is its association with the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars that raged in England during the late 15th century. The castle came under the ownership of the powerful House of Percy, who supported the Lancastrian faction. During the Wars of the Roses, it served as a Lancastrian stronghold and witnessed several sieges and battles.
In 1462, during the conflict, Dunstanburgh Castle was besieged and captured by Yorkist forces under the command of the future Richard III. The castle’s fortifications were partially dismantled as a result, rendering it less defensible. However, the Percys, undeterred, managed to regain control of the castle in 1471. The castle remained a focal point of conflict and intrigue throughout this tumultuous period.
By the 16th century, Dunstanburgh Castle had lost much of its military significance. It fell into disrepair, and its stone was plundered for use in other construction projects in the region. Its slow decline continued over the centuries, with erosion from the sea and natural decay further contributing to its deterioration.
In the 19th century, Dunstanburgh Castle underwent a renaissance of sorts when it captured the imagination of Romantic-era artists and writers. The castle’s picturesque ruins, set amidst the wild beauty of the Northumberland coast, became a subject of fascination and inspiration. Painters like J.M.W. Turner and writers like Sir Walter Scott extolled its poetic charm.