The Duke of Angoulême in the Battle of Trocadero - Paul Delaroche

The Duke of Angoulême in the Battle of Trocadero: Paul Delaroche

The Duke of Angoulême in the Battle of Trocadero is an 1824 painting by French Romantic artist Paul Delaroche. This work is located in the Palace of Versailles in Versailles, France.

The Duke of Angoulême’s involvement in The Battle of Trocadero

The Battle of Trocadero, fought on August 31, 1823, was a pivotal military engagement during the French intervention in Spain. This intervention aimed to restore King Ferdinand VII to the Spanish throne, ultimately achieving a decisive victory that reinforced conservative power in Europe. The Duke of Angoulême, Louis Antoine, played a crucial role in leading the French forces to success.


In the early 1820s, Spain was engulfed in political turmoil. Liberal factions, inspired by constitutional movements across Europe, challenged the autocratic rule of King Ferdinand VII. The liberal revolution of 1820 forced Ferdinand to accept a constitutional monarchy, limiting his powers significantly. This period, known as the Trienio Liberal, saw the rise of a liberal government that faced fierce opposition from conservative and royalist elements within Spain and from other European monarchies, particularly France.

In 1823, under the influence of the Holy Alliance—a coalition of Russia, Austria, and Prussia dedicated to preserving monarchical authority—France decided to intervene in Spain. Their goal was to suppress the liberal government and restore absolute monarchy. French King Louis XVIII dispatched an army known as the “Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis,” commanded by his nephew, the Duke of Angoulême.

The Battle

The Battle of Trocadero was the climax of this intervention. The French aimed to capture the Fort of Trocadero, a strategic point guarding the entrance to the Bay of Cádiz. Cádiz was a liberal stronghold, and capturing Trocadero would pave the way to the city, crippling the liberal resistance.

The Duke of Angoulême led the French forces, which numbered around 40,000 and included infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The fort was defended by approximately 3,500 Spanish liberal troops. On August 31, after a brief but intense bombardment, Angoulême ordered a coordinated assault on the fort. The attack was meticulously planned, with French engineers playing a crucial role in overcoming the fort’s defenses.

Under Angoulême’s leadership, the French forces executed the assault with precision. Despite facing fierce resistance from the Spanish defenders, the French troops, demonstrating superior discipline and firepower, managed to breach the fort’s defenses. The battle involved close-quarters combat and resulted in significant casualties on both sides. By the end of the day, the fort had fallen, and the remaining Spanish troops either surrendered or fled.

Aftermath and Significance

The capture of Trocadero was a turning point in the French intervention. It led to the fall of Cádiz shortly thereafter, effectively ending the liberal government’s control. King Ferdinand VII was restored to absolute power, and the liberal constitution was abolished. The victory at Trocadero bolstered the prestige of the French monarchy and demonstrated the effectiveness of the Holy Alliance in maintaining conservative order in Europe.

In France, the victory was celebrated and commemorated in various ways, including the naming of the Trocadéro area in Paris. The battle underscored the shifting political dynamics in post-Napoleonic Europe and the enduring struggle between liberalism and conservatism.

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