The Great Bath at Bursa is an 1885 nude genre oil on canvas painting in the Academic and Orientalist style by French artist and sculptor Jean-Léon Gérôme.
In the 19th century, bathing houses, commonly known as hammams, played a significant role in Turkish society and culture. These public bathhouses served as important social and communal spaces where people from various backgrounds could gather to cleanse themselves, relax, and socialize. Hammams in 19th-century Turkey reflected the architectural style and traditions of the Ottoman Empire while serving practical and cultural functions.
Hammams were designed with separate sections for men and women to ensure privacy and modesty. The bathhouses were typically divided into several rooms, each serving a specific purpose. These rooms included the cold room (sogukluk), warm room (ılıklık), and hot room (sıcaklık). The cold room served as an entrance area and a place to cool down, while the warm room provided a transition space between the cold and hot rooms. The hot room, heated by a central dome or furnace, was where the actual bathing took place.
The architecture of the hammams in 19th-century Turkey often featured intricate tile work, marble floors, and decorative elements such as calligraphy and geometric patterns. The walls and ceilings were adorned with colorful and ornate tiles, creating a visually stunning environment. The design of the hammams was not only aesthetically pleasing but also practical, as the marble and tiles helped regulate the temperature and create a relaxing atmosphere.
The bathing rituals in the hammams followed a specific process. Upon entering, visitors would undress and store their belongings in designated areas. They would then proceed to the warm room to acclimate their bodies to the rising temperature. From there, they would move to the hot room, where attendants would scrub and massage them with olive oil soap and exfoliating mitts known as kese. The bathing experience was not just about physical cleanliness but also about socializing, as people would engage in conversations, share news, and form connections during their time in the hammam.
Hammams were not solely used by the wealthy or privileged; they were accessible to people from various social classes. They provided an opportunity for people to interact, regardless of their social status or background. Bathing in hammams was considered an essential part of hygiene and self-care in Turkish culture, and it played a role in maintaining both physical and mental well-being.